Details
Study title
Family with preschool child: Educational situation and the use of public social and medical support
Ref study 837
Study language German
Contributing institutions
Authors
Keywords
  • Sozialpolitik
  • Familie
  • Sozialisation
  • Elterneinstellung
  • Frühe Kindheit
  • Kleinkind
  • Mutter
  • Sozialdienst
Disciplines
Period
Ab 1991, als die erstgeborenen Kinder der Mütter unserer Stichprobe zur Welt kamen; Ende der Längsschnittstudie 1997
Geographical space
Alle untersuchten Mütter hatten den Wohnsitz zum Zeitpunkt der Geburt im Kanton Zürich
Country
  • Switzerland
Abstract
Despite the growing literature on how "young families" are coping with the transition to parenting, there is still a great lack of validated knowledge. For example, the statistical information provided by the Confederation and cantons on family life situations is incomplete. They are based on a traditional family image, which considers as normal the residential community of two married parents of different sex with one or more children of their own. Accordingly, only a distinction is made between single, married, widowed and divorced persons. The ever increasing number of consensual couples (concubinage of unmarried partners) is not covered. Therefore, for example, it is unknown how many children of unmarried mothers grow up in a housing and relationship constellation that includes (at least) the mother and a man - possibly, but not necessarily the father - and that in terms of stability can be equal to a marriage. The number of single parents is therefore not apparent from the official statistics. Nor do we know how many parents (mostly mothers) who are married and represent statistically intact families are actually single parents, because the other parent hardly or not at all participates in family responsibilities. We also know many qualitative aspects of the current family realities only fragmentarily or from studies carried out abroad. Families do not have a mouthpiece to voice their concerns and needs. In contrast to the Federal Republic of Germany, for example, there is no Ministry for Family Affairs in Switzerland, and even the regular family reports are unknown to us. Time and again politicians and professionals face the problem of having to rely on assumptions or personal experiences that are not (any more) in line with current reality when it comes to planning, new laws or the implementation of measures on a daily basis. In particular, given the shortage of money at all levels of the state, the rising unemployment and poverty that is more prevalent than previously thought, much background is needed on the reality of today's families so as not to sacrifice essential services and offers with short-term austerity measures and to consequently cause high human and financial costs. The optimization of existing social and medical services does not necessarily cost more. However, if a family does not have a suitable home, a family-friendly social environment with the necessary infrastructure (shopping and transport facilities, medical care, etc.), its functioning is at risk. Also, many subjective factors, such as the relationship between the child and his parents, satisfaction with the role of parents or the mental health of father and mother play a major role when it comes to assessing the current family situation.
Based on these considerations, our main interest was in the following research questions:
- How strongly do various resources and stress factors influence the family situation (personality traits of parents, quality of couple relationship, characteristics of the child, relationships with relatives, friends and acquaintances, financial situation, public social and medical services, etc.)?
- How do mothers experience their family and personal situation under these conditions?
- What needs do mothers have for public social and medical support for themselves and their families?
- What support do they actually receive and how satisfied are they?
- Which offers are not available to the families, although they are desired or urgently necessary?
Recent research by other research institutes dealing with various aspects of this topic has produced interesting results on the effect of informal support through the social network. In accordance with our results, the great importance of direct help from relatives and acquaintances for the young family could be proven. However, some families, especially if they are socially disadvantaged, are still dependent on public support. The private social network is often unable or unwilling to provide adequate and long-lasting assistance. The differentiated approach of our study proved its worth, because it enabled us, for example, to show that the relatives - and especially the parents' families of origin - primarily fulfilled material and service functions (child care, domestic help), while the circle of friends and acquaintances was preferred for advice and personal discussions relating to children and maternity.
No substantive contributions were found in the national and international research literature accessible to us on other important topics of our study (use of public support in the first years after founding a family, personal willingness to seek help, need for further measures and offers). It therefore seems all the more important to us to exploit the full potential of the data already available and still to be collected in the coming months according to the current research plan.
Results
Methods (description)
Grundgesamtheit: Frauen, die 1991 im Kanton Zürich ihr erstes Kind zur Welt brachten und Deutsch, Italienisch oder Türkisch sprechen. Zeitbezug: Längsschnittuntersuchung; Fragebogenbefragung während der Schwangerschaft (N = 500), Interviews nach 4, 12, 24, 36, 48 und 60 Monaten.
Auswahlverfahren: über Fachpersonen Fragebogen an möglichst viele Erstschwangere abgegeben; aus dem Rücklauf 200 Mütter nach theoretischen Kriterien ausgewählt (möglichst unterschiedliche, für spezielle Lebenslagen typische Familien – auch Alleinerziehende – mit nichtbehinderten Kindern).
Grösse der Stichprobe(n): 750 Fragebogen von Schwangeren ausgefüllt und zurückgesandt; 200 Mütter für Interviews ausgewählt; erstes Interview (vier Monate nach der Geburt) mit 182 Müttern, zweites Interview (1 Jahr nach der Geburt) mit 174 Müttern, drittes Interview (2 Jahre nach der Geburt) mit 161 Müttern, viertes Interview (drei Jahre nach der Geburt) mit 152 Müttern durchgeführt.
Datenerhebungsinstrumente: Fragebogen während der Schwangerschaft mit meist geschlossenen Fragen; Interviews bei den Müttern zuhause anhand eines ausformulierten Interviewleitfadens, Aufnahme auf Tonband, anschliessend Transkription; während und nach jedem Interview Fragebogen und Tests zu
- Einstellungen der Frauen zur Mutterschaft und zum Kind
- Persönlichkeitseigenschaften der Mütter
- Temperament des Kindes
- Unterstützung durch den Partner
- Zeitbudget der Familie während einer Woche
- Qualität der Paarbeziehung
- Einstellung zur Inanspruchnahme verschiedener Formen öffentlicher Unterstützung.
Datenerhebung: durch Forschungsteam. Analysemethoden: Inhaltsanalyse der Interviewtranskriptionen, uni- und multivariate Analysen der Daten (Kontingenztabellen, Varianzanalysen, Pfadanalysen, Diskriminanzanalysen).
Methods (instruments)
Replicated study No
Publications
  • Huwiler, Kurt. 1998. Alltäglich Belastung von Müttern durch ihre Kinder in den ersten vier Lebensjahren - eine Längsschnittstudie. Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 45, 261-279, 1998.
  • Meisner Wismer, Zuzana. 1998. Getrübte Mutterfreunden. Zürich: Marie Meierhofer-Institut für das Kind, 1998. Videofilm, VHS oder U-Matic, 17 min.
  • Marie Meierhofer-Institut für das Kind , . 1998. Startbedingungen für Familien. Forschungs- und Erlebnisberichte zur Situation von Familien mit Kleinkindern in der Schweiz und sozialpolitische Forderungen. Zürich: pro juventute, 1998.
  • Huwiler, Kurt. 1998. Was erwarten Mütter in Erwartung?. In: Dieter Bürgin (Hrsg.),Triangulierung. Der Uebergang zur Elternschaft (S.23-38). Stuttgard: Schattauer, 1998.
  • Schenk, Sabine. 1997. Kindertage. Eine Zeitbudgetanalyse des Alltags zweijähriger Kinder. Köniz: Edition Soziothek, 1997.
  • Huwiler, Kurt. 1996. Wo sind die "neuen Väter"?: die ungleichen Rollen von Müttern und Vätern: die Bedürfnisse der Kleinkinder. In: Und Kinder, 16 Jg., Nr. 56, Dezember 1996. S. 51-61.
  • Huwiler, Kurt. 1995. Herausforderung Mutterschaft. Bern: Huber Verlag, 1995.
  • Huwiler, Kurt et al... 1995. Marie Meierhofer-Institut: Frauen gestalten die Mutterschaft. (2). In: Und Kinder, II. Sondernummer, Nr. 53, 1995.
  • Huwiler, Kurt et al.. 1993. Marie Meierhofer-Institut: Frauen gestalten die Mutterschaft (1). In: Und Kinder, Sondernummer, Nr. 48, 1993.
Financed by


Mandating institution(s)
  • Fonds für Gemeinnützige Zwecke des Kantons Zürich und Pro Familia Schweiz
Ethical approval No
Study type
Data availability
Source (Updates) Paper
Date created 23.04.2018
Date modified 23.04.2018
Start - End date 01.02.1991 - 28.01.1998