Study title
The influence of gender ratios on academic careers: Combining social networks with tokenism
Ref study 12116
Study language English
Contributing institutions
  • Social networks
  • Gender
  • Promotion
  • Career
  • Structural holes
  • Tokens
Geographical space
  • Switzerland
This paper examines how gender proportions at the workplace affect the extent to which individual networks support the career progress (i.e. time to promotion). Previous studies have argued that men and women benefit from different network structures. However, the empirical evidence about these differences has been contradictory or inconclusive at best. Combining social networks with tokenism, we show in a longitudinal academic study that gender-related differences in the way that networks affect career progress exist only in situations where women are in a token position. Our empirical results further show that women not in severely underrepresented situations benefit from the same network structure as men.
Our empirical results confirm that when gender ratios are more balanced, professional networks adjust in such a way that gender-related differences in promotion disappear.
Methods (description)
Social network anaylsis and regression analysis
Methods (instruments)
Replicated study No
Financed by
Ethical approval No
Study type
Data availability
Source (Updates) Web
Date created 05.11.2018
Date modified 20.11.2018
Start - End date -