Study title
The Comparative Candidates Survey (CCS)
Ref study 11249
Study language English
Contributing institutions
  • Comparative politics
  • Parliamentary elections
  • Electoral systems
  • Political campaigning
CCS Wave I: 2005 - 2013
CCS Wave II: 2013 - 2019
Geographical space
Wave I: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.

Wave II: Albania, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Montenegro, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland.
  • Switzerland
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Austria
  • Australia
  • Belgium
  • Canada
  • Spain
  • Estonia
  • Hungary
  • Ireland
  • Luxembourg
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Sweden
  • United Kingdom
  • Chile
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Finland
  • Greece
  • Albania
  • Iceland
  • Malta
  • Montenegro
  • New Zealand
The Comparative Candidate Survey (CCS) is a response to the growing number of candidate surveys in the Anglo-saxon world and beyond. More or less regular candidate surveys are conducted in Australia, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The rational of the CCS is to harmonise these dispersed efforts and give them a cross-nationally comparable core. The CCS is an internationally coordinated effort. It combines an internationally agreed and locally adapted core questionnaire with questions that try to capture national and election specifics. The core candidate questionnaire specifically focuses on the issue of individualisation of electoral campaigns, i.e. the empirical question to which extent the candidates run their own campaigns distinct from those of their parties.
CCS has been running since 2006. Using the CCS wave I questionnaire, the first wave includes candidate surveys from 32 elections across 24 countries. To date, the second wave incorporates candidate surveys from 26 parliamentary elections in 20 countries, where the CCS wave II questionnaire was used. More information on the project can be found on the CCS website (
Methods (description)
Methods (instruments)
Replicated study No
Secondary analyses
  • Önnudóttir, Eva H.. 2014. Policy congruence and style of representation: Party voters and political parties. West European Politics, 37(3), 538-563. Online: 10.1080/01402382.2013.841057
Financed by
Ethical approval No
Study type
Data availability
Source (Updates) Web
Date created 17.11.2020
Date modified 25.11.2020
Start - End date 05.10.2005 - 17.11.2020